Climate Emergency Institute

Source of CO2 ​
Protect the land carbon sink 

Protect the ocean carbon sink 
Energy/power DENSITY​​ Fossil fuel conversion can be done for domestic electricity, but not yet for heavy manufacturing and heavy transport, which requires very high energy dense power (presently mostly fossil fuels, with some big dam hydro and some nuclear fission).

​​DEEP GEOTHERMAL  is the obvious high energy dens conversion for the oil/gas industry to do. 

All fossil fuel energy electricity can be replaced with clean renewables and this is happening 
2011 IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation noted that  'The global technical potential of RE sources will not limit continued growth ​in the use of RE. ...studies have consistently found that the ​total global technical potential for RE is substantially higher ​than global energy demand. The technical potential for solar energy
is the highest among the RE sources, but substantial technical potential  exists for all six RE sources'. ​​

CO2 removal (CDR) 

​DAC CO2 removal has to be some form of direct air capture
Latest research was published
​by Environmental Research Letters
2018 Special issue
​Focus on Negative Emissions  
According to the IPCC global emissions reduction has been delayed for so long that '-ve emissions​​' or CO2 removal is now required.
​The 2018 IPCC 1.5C report's best case P1 scenario has no CCS nor CO2 removal, but the report assumes CO2 removal at scale is feasible- ​today it is not. 

​​Non geoengineering safe effective CDR includes regenerative agriculture, biochar, afforestation and wood construction in place of steel & concrete. 

​​CDR geo-engineering methods are not mature technologies and all sources conclude their practical value at scale to be questionable.

The most published CDR method is bioenergy + carbon capture sequestration   
This relies on industrial scale biomass ​burning, which excludes it as an option, even though the IPCC calls it an option.

​There are potential direct air capture technologies (DAC) but they are energy intensive  expensive.
 2011 IPCC Expert Meeting on Geoengineering.  IPCC 2014 AR5b WG 3 SPM says: The availability and scale of Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) technologies and methods are uncertain and CDR technologies and methods are, associated with challenges and risks (high confidence).

​​Springer in 2013 published a special issue on -ve emissions.

​​The most comprehensive IPCC 2014 AR5 BECCS assessment is WG3 11.13
Appendix Bioenergy.Recent 2017 review shows that even after many years of consideration CDR has made no real progress.

​A recent report,(Feb 2018) is on the UN Climate Sec site by the European Academies Science Advisory Council, which does not support BECCS and concludes 'these technologies offer only limited realistic potential to remove carbon from the atmosphere' .. 'and not at the levels required to compensate for inadequate mitigation'.

​​The bad news is research finding that CDR is of questionable help for the ocean disruption. CDR theoretical potentials have been published.

​​All methods need to to be tried as part of the planetary emergency response but assumed effectiveness should not be relied for mitigation policy. 

​​Despite being included in many models and mitigation papers, it therefore remains unknown DAC at scale is feasible and we have to assume will not stop ocean heating, acidification and deoxygenation. As the oceans are the ultimate determinant of climate this makes the Earth emergency doubly dire. We need a planet emergency global massive Manhattan model project.   
2017 Energy Watch 100% renewable electricity world is feasible, and cheaper 
March 2017 A Carbon Law to Protect the Climate 
March 2017 'Immediate ​global action to curb future warming is essential to secure a future for coral reefs'. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals
March 2016 ​ 'Immediate, massive effort to control CO2 emissions', which are stopped by mid-century. Risk of multiple interacting tipping points should encourage rapid CO2 emission reduction.


Massive Manhattan-Apollo- Marshall project. The more ​​today's unprecedented atmospheric GHG pollution is studied the more impossible it seems to now prevent planetary catastrophe.

​​It is now become a 'mission impossible' situation that requires nothing less than an immediate planetary emergency massive international 
Manhattan-Marshall type venture to rebuild our world.
Dec 2016 Prof. Hans Joachim Schellnhuber.  

Global surface temperature and ​atmospheric CO2 for 2023 were both  big record highs and record annual increases.

​Atmospheric CO2 is accelerating to 2024 even though there was no increase in CO2 emissions for 2014 and 2015. Ocean acidification and heat content are accelerating. ​

​​Obviously there is no allowable carbon budget to burn more fossil fuels in this most perilous situation.​ Clearly the whole world is on a fast fixed ​heading for global suicide.

​​The future is the solar age- or no future, if the fossil fuel industry is allowed to keep the world dependent on and dominated by fossil fuels.

This as been known for decades (The Politics of the Solar Age 1975-2015 Hazel Henderson). The latest science makes this certain  'We Could Power The Entire World By Harnessing Solar Energy From 1% Of The Sahara' (Forbes 22 Sep 2016)- Prof Mehran Moalem, PhD, UC Berkeley.

ALL fossil fuel energy must be replaced by clean virtual zero carbon ever lasting energy.​​ That is because of the definite science of zero carbon emissions, without which global temperature and ocean acidification cannot stabilize (

Renewable energy can repower the world according to the IPCC in its 2011 renewable energy report that all fossil fuel energy could be replaced by renewable energies, for an investment of 1% of global GDP or $5 over the next decade. This is the same as governments have been giving to the fossil fuel industries in subsidies (IMF 2015). 

​​Best behavioural or life style practices for carbon footprint reduction is a given, well known for many years so not described here, except to say that for methane the meat based diet must be converted. ​​​​

It is necessary to first emphasize what measures are no part of an emergency response plan, as they are unproven, dangerous, provide an excuse to keep emitting and unnecessary (if emergency emissions cuts are taken):
  • No SRM Planetary geoengineered cooling by atmospheric acid aerosols
  • No BECCS Biomass combustion for energy with CCS.
The Burning Age is over and the only solution to carbon pollution ​is conversion to a (virtual) zero carbon clean renewable energy economy​​

​​Zero carbon means zero deforestation, plus global afforestation 

The UN Paris Agreement is just the opposite- MORE emissions. The May 2016 UN Climate Change Secretariat Update of ​intended national emissions targets (INDCs) shows that after Paris emissions will still be higher at 2030, and proves that nothing is going to be done to save our future without a global emergency mass climate mobilization

Our planet is on the brink of runaway climate change - total planetary catastrophe.
We have to convert our industrial GHG polluting world to ​a non GHG polluting one and fast. ​An immediate International Planetary Emergency Manhattan Marshall Model Venture (NOT planetary cooling) is now the only survival response — primarily for a big upgrade of our new clean energy technologies and to get safe, zero-combustion, super high energy density safe new fission and hopefully fusion power on line, which is ​now looking feasible. And we need safe direct air CO2 removal to get near zero CO2 emissions (not by burning biomass). For energy/power density, see Vaclav Smi​l and IPCC renewable energy report, SREEN

OCEAN POWER The Oceans hold vast amounts of high energy dense power, by ocean thermal energy conversion  WikiPedia conversion Paper
Job One for Humanity Emergency Plan 
Mark Jacobson has worked out zero carbon combustion energy conversion by solar, wind and water 
​The Solutions Project (M.Jacobson)
A decade to end fossil fuels  2016 study​
2019, New Internationalist What Can I Do?
Global solar atlas 2019 
Global wind atlas 2019​ (World Bank)
In its 2019 Emissions GAP Report the UNEP said (again)
​emissions had to decline by 2020 
UNEP 2019

But, we have no time left and everything has to be changed fast-in no time.

​We must have a Massive Climate War Effort—Now
​It is well recognizedd that only massive world spending on upgraded clean energy R&D enough for world decarbonization ​can save us.​

​Precedents for that include Manhattan Project, and Marshall Plan
A Manhattan type R&D Project and Marshall type world to:
o rapidly develop best possible clean renewable energy technologies
o energy dense new power technologies(to replace energy dense fossil fuel uses)​
​o rebuild the world for zero carbon combustion age and
o ​develop safe effective at scale CO2 removal technologies​

The perverse world ECONOMY 
2020 Oscar Reyes, Change Finance, not the Climate

​​​The Military Industrial ​​Complex is a huge part of our economy, now reached $2 Trillion/year on world armaments, with the US now over $800 Billion.
​War is a huge obstacle to international climate cooperation and abandoning fossil fuels. The prolonged war in Ukraine makes climate change international cooperation for mitigation more
unlikely than ever
Peace must be won, now for the survival of us all

​ ​

GREEN H2 High energy dense green hydrogen power is a potential component
​of the zero carbon combustion economy

FISSION is the big one - doable close to zero carbon energy dense power
State of the art small nuclear fission is an essential part, no matter the economic cost.

​Getting to zero carbon fast requires using
​highest energy dense small compact reactor
​nuclear fission power, in order to manufacture
​the vast amount of clean renewable infrastructure
​to rebuild the world for zero carbon combustion.
​Micro-fission reactors are certainly possible

​​​​Wind turbines etc today are being made by burning coal.
​This is not being taken into account.
​​Safe compact fission can definitely be done.
​It is a most tragic irony that green politics still actively prevents​​ 
Assume 3Rs, Reduce Reuse Recycle
The 3Rs ​is an essential component of a clean energy strategy. 

Economics Root Climate Change Cause 
​As determined in 2006 ​by the
​UK Stern Commission​the ​root cause of climate ​change
​is our perverse perpetual growth, all consuming externalizing
​economics -​the "greatest most far reaching market 
failure ever".

Ecological economics ​​

Net Zero is undefined so avoids rapid full mitigation 
3 May 2021 Dangerous Trap (International Science Council)
11 May 2021De-growth now a must
Nuclear Fission Q&A
Double click here to edit this text.
Today (i.e. 2023) global emissions are higher than ever and still increasing.
All it requires to get started in the right direction​is the immediate  unconditional termination of all fossil fuel and all other GHG polluting subsidies by governments.
​Fossil Fuel Subsidies Surged to Record $7 Trillion last year (24 ​August 2023, IMF)

Carbon tax the polluters

Governments also ​have to charge the polluting corporations the
​full cost of their pollution not just carbon taxing ​citizens as generally today

Wealth Tax And there must be a
hefty wealth tax. The richest 10 percent accounted for over half (52 percent) of the emissions(2020 OXFAM)
The 2018 IPCC 1.5°C Report best case P1 had fossil fuel energy production down to near zero by 2050, specified by % drop in each fossil fuel 
Immediate decline global emissions ​for 1.5°C & 2°C (IPCC 6th Assessment)
The Solution is Conversion
Key is Termination subsidies ​
The best global detailed immediate response plan IEA Net Zero by 2050 (energy)
The internal combustion engine 

Fossil fuel air pollution
​Surface/tropospheric ozone is a toxic GHG (short-lived) formed ​from fossil air pollutants and increased by heat.
January 2020 Mother Jones Great article.
​World conversion is doable

​The science has been certain for years.
​No more carbon ​can be dumped on the atmosphere 

Zero fossil fuel combustion and zero biomass combustion ​

​​All fossil fuel energy must be phased out fast- replaced by renewable clean energy
100% world energy conversion​.

​​The zero carbon combustion world energy economy ​​is the safest, 
​clearest,surest and most feasible carbon conversion / decarbonization
Natural/nature based solutions are a must, and are happening. 

​Natural solutions are attractive and doable​ Every​one has to get involved  

Personal living.
​It is a given that ​​all in the Global North 
must convert their wasteful consumer culture to conserver culture. 
​It is essential on energy, because the more energy we conserve the faster we ​can make the fossil fuel zero conversion
Energy austerity
Atmospheric CO2 is now so high (423.9 ppm) that avoiding global climate and oceans collapse requires a huge decrease is energy consumption, which means energy and manufactured goods austerity. As it is phased down fossil fuel energy must be dedicated to renewable energy infrastructure and manufacturing.
CSP Concentrated solar thermal molten salt heat storage is high energy dense. 
It is only being held up by cost ​
Net zero? ​Just net zero carbon emissions ​is no solution. Only Zero carbon combustion (fossil fuels industrial biomass) can get to near zero carbon emissions. That's fundamental as CO2 and nitrous oxide last 100s of years. Also emissions must drop to 'near zero' (IPCC). 
CONVERSIONS (100% change)
​   From Consumer 
to Conserver Culture ​​
   Future Generations protection​
Total Conversion of:
War ​economy to peace economy
Resources ​to build zero combustion world
​Fossil fuels to ​100% clean renewable
Construction Steel & concrete to wood​
Agriculture Chemical intensive mechanized
to organic regenerative (like permaculture)
Diet to meat free​ Vegan 
Transport ​from car based (even EV) to
zero carbon 
public seamless transport 
No air or ship pleasure travel​
Food Production & diet
Energy production and use
SUBSIDIES Key indispensable measure Stop GHG polluting subsidies​
to fossil fuels ($7 Trillionby IMF), and also food production​


Herman Daly (Wikipedia)
Sustainable development(1992 Agenda 21) though never fully implemented is a detailed action plan with principles for economic ecological reform 
Bank fossil fuel financing 
Banks financed fossil fuels by $6.9 trillion dollars since 2015 Paris Agreement; $705 billion 2023  2024 Report  Must stop
Conversion GHG sectoral sources
Conversion all fossil fuel energy
War economy